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Home Category Blog Kako radi prigušivač

Kako radi prigušivač

Pitanje čitaoca: Pozdrav iz Bihaća. Interesuje me prigušivač za pušku, komore, svrha komora, šta se nalazi između komora, itd. Molim vas da navedeno objasnite.      Odgovara: Mladen Puzigaća

Pokušaćemo najkraće što se može da odgovorimo na ovo pitanje. 

Pucanj iz vatrenog oružja, kao što smo već o tome pisali, je kompleksan i potiče iz više izvora buke. Pucanj inicijalne kapisle, oslobođenih barutnih gasova, i progresivni zvučni talas projektila su sjedinjeni u jedinstven akustički efekt po izlasku projektila iz cijevi. Za rad prigušivača, posebno je interesantan pucanj koji nastaje kada projektil u kontaktu sa vazduhom probije zvučni zid. Ovaj zvuk je oštar kratak i rezak. Ovakav pucanj proizvodi i vrh biča koji pri opružanju dostiže brzinu koja je veća od brzine zvuka.

Da bi se smanjio nivo buke prilikom pucanja iz vatrenog oružja potrebno je umanjiti efekte pomenutih elemenata pucnja. Ako se uprošteno kaže da je potreban hvatač barutnih gasova zajedno sa produktima izgaranja inicijalne kapisle nećemo odstupiti od osnovne definicije uređaja za redukciju nivoa buke. Ovde ćemo koristiti izraz pucanj a ne eksplozija jer barut nije brizantni eksploziv nego jak potiskivajući, odnosno fugasni energent.

Uređaji za prigušenje zvuka se po funkciji dijele na razbijače pucnja i prigušivače. Prigušivači se mogu konstrukciono podijeliti na integrisane i montažne.

Da bismo jasno shvatili rad uređaja za prigušenje buke pomenuli smo način njenog nastanka. Koeficijent širenja barutnih gasova u odnosu na zapreminu baruta je veoma veliki. Ovaj podatak je veoma važan kod proračuna zapremine prigušivača.

Prvi prigušivač je izrađen prije tačno sto godina i njegov konstruktor Hajrem P. Maksim je konceptualno osmislio jedinstven uređaj koji će da zavrtloži i ohladi barutne gasove mijenjajući im smjer iz pravolinijskog u kružno kretanje. Rotiranjem se smanjila izlazna brzina i toplota gasova.

Unutar prigušivača, segmenti koji su poredani u tijelu, formiraju niz komora od kojih je prva obično ekspanziona i ostale su vrtložne komore za hlađenje gasa.

Preteča savremenih prigušivača su bile razne perforirane cijevi, obložene mrežicama za odvođenje toplote. Najčešće je pominjana čelična vuna odnosno čelična špena koja je trebala da primi toplotu gasova. Ovakav prigušivač je bio težak i kvarljiv pa se od njega veoma brzo odustalo. Barutni gasovi su imali preveliku energiju i nabijali su žicu ka stijenkama, gurali je van i otkidali komade koji su poslije nekontolisano ispadali.

Moderni prigušivači u sebi imaju samo komore koje nemaju nikakve dodatke za apsorbovanje toplote i zvuka. Na ovaj način se povećao i koristan volumen uređaja.

Komore imaju zadatak da prihvate udarni talas oslobođenih barutnih gasova, da ih zavrtlože čime sila barutnih gasova neutrališe samu sebe. Vrtloženje unutar niza složenih komora prigušivača dovodi do usporavanja i konfuzionog kretanja gasa. Produženi boravak hladi, usporava barutne gasove i omogućuje porast površine kontakta između tijela prigušivača i barutnih gasova. Po izlasku iz uređaja, brzina barutnih gasova je značajno ispod brzine zvuka (oko 330m/s) i uslovi za pojavu pucnja su eliminisani.

Zbog stvaranja progresivnog zvučnog talasa po izlasku projektila iz cijevi (kod nadzvučnih projektila), nastaje drugi pucanj, tako da ga prigušivač ne može utišati. Ovaj pucanj nastaje van tijela prigušivača. Ni najbolja konstrukcija komora neće omogućiti tih izlazak projektila ukoliko se ne koristi podzvučni metak.

Korištenje jakih laboracija je moguće samo u jednostavno konstruisanim razbijačima pucnja jer nemaju mnogo komora u sebi. Velika količina baruta neminovno višestruko povećava silu barutnih gasova koji destruktivno djeluju na komore, odnosno članke prigušivača, što može da dovede do kvara ili potpunog uništenja uređaja.

Da ne bi bili zabune, pojedine konstrukcije uređaja za redukciju pucnja su iste ali su efekti različiti zavisno od vrste metka koji se koristi.

Podzvučna municija je uglavnom u pištoljskim kalibrima, 22LR, 6.53, 7.65, 9K i poneki 9x19 (Para). Nivo buke pucnja 22LR je 120db, 9 Para 155db a karabina 223 Remington 165 db. Poređanja radi, nivo buke ljudskog govora je 45 - 50db. Kvalitet redukcije pucnja svakako zavisi od inicijalnog nivoa buke.

Pokušaji da se obezbjedi bešumno funkcionisanje oružja su naveli konstruktore i na upotrebu silikonskog prstena koji ima funkciju „brisača“ projektila.

Puške i pištolji sa fiksnim cijevima mogu da koriste prigušivače raznih konstrukcija i ako ste vidjeli bilo kakav uređaja za redukciju zvuka na revolverima, znajte da je to moguće samo u filmu. Na kraju, kao što rekosmo, o svemu ćemo ovome opširnije pisati u narednim brojevima.

Ako išta, sada bar znamo da kažemo pucanj iz vatrenog oružja pa nećemo govoriti eksplozija.

Autor: Mladen Puzigaća

www.zrno.ba

 

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