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Home Lov / lovačka oprema Lov UTICAJ NA PRECIZNOST - DUŽA ILI KRAĆA CIJEV

UTICAJ NA PRECIZNOST - DUŽA ILI KRAĆA CIJEV

Pitanje koje bar decenijama kopka strijelce i lovce. Često se pokrenuta priča svede na neki autorizovan citat ali bez nekih konkretnih navoda. Pokušaćemo postaviti stvar na svoje mjesto iz  našeg ugla gledanja, kako bi naši brojni čitaoci dobili odgovor na pitanje koje su upućivali: „Ej al’ stvarno, kakav uticaj ima dužina cijevi na preciznost oružja”!



Primjena crnog baruta u puškama i revolverima je uslovila konstrukciona rješenja na oružju koja su bila odgovarajuća i u skladu sa karakteristikama izgaranja crnog baruta. Osnovna komponenta koja je činila gorivo crnog baruta je drveni ugalj uz kalijum nitrata koji je korišten kao oksidans. Oksidansi imaju u sebi redukovan kiseonik i zahvaljujući tome burno gore sa bilo kojim gorivom i u uslovima bez prisustva spoljnjeg kiseonika iz vazduha.

Dodatkom sumpora u crni barut, snaga mu je udvostručena. Od pojave prvog trokomponentnog baruta pominje se i naziv sumporni barut. Prvi baruti nisu imali sumpor nego samo kalijum nitrat i ugljeni prah u omjeru od KNO3 80% i 20% C drveni ugalj. Baruti i oružja su uporedno evoluirali od dvokomponentnih baruta u oružja sa jako dugačkim cijevima do savremenih nitroceluloznih baruta i oružja sa kraćim cijevima.

Upotrebljiva smješa sumpornog baruta koja se mogla koristiti za oružje je bila bazirana na tri osnovna sastojka.
1-    Kalijun nitrat ( KNO3 ) 75 %
2-    Drvani ugalj ( C ) 15%
3-    Sumpor ( S ) 10%

Dugačka cijev je dužom nišanskom linijom garantovala veću preciznost i veći domet što je u vrijeme upotrebe crnog baruta imalo presudan značaj. Sumporni barut je imao linearni porast pritiska koji se jednostavno mogao kontrolisati dodavanjem malo veće ili manje količine barutnog praha. Olovna kugla ili valjkasto sferični projektili sa ili bez stabilizatora su omotavani zaptivnim materijalom i od tada je krenula evolucija prema izradi sjedinjenog metka za vatreno oružje. Danas se pojam preciznog nišanjenja neodvojivo povezuje za snažne optičke nišane tako da dužina cijevi ne ulazi u ovu priču.

Veliku promjenu u svijetu vatrenog oružja je donio nitrocelulozni barut koji je znatno jači od crnog baruta tako da je era tankocjevnog oružja sa trubicama na ustima cijevi morala da bude privedena kraju. Nitrocelulozni i nitroglicerinski baruti uslovili su razvoj cijevi sa ojačanim stjenkama u zoni ležišta metka, porast pritiska nije bio ni nalik na razvoj pritiska kod crnih baruta a i inicijalni pucanj koji ga aktivira, nije više samo bio žiška vatre nego jače inicijalno sredstvo.

Sad kada imamo savremeni metak i savremeni barut počećemo priču o cijevima. Zbog lakšeg poređenja bilo bi važno da se pomenu dva paradoksalna pucnja. Prvi je pucanj metka u cijevi koja je dugačka koliko i narezani dio projektila a drugi paradoks je beskrajno duga cijev. U prvom slučaju bi energija baruta ostala neiskorištena i čim bi se čaura otvorila barut bi izgorio u okolini, u drugom slučaju, barut bi izgorio u cijevi a ZRNO bi ostalo zaglavljeno negdje na mjestu gdje bi prestali da ga potiskuju oslobođeni barutni gasovi.

Kraća cijev

Prvo ću navesti tvrdnju da dužina cijevi nema uticaja na preciznost, nego samo na domet jer su neki testovi upravo tako pokazivali. Međutim, da li je to kraj priče, dabome da nije!

Savremeno ožlijebljene cijevi su sposobne da umire projektil i da ga dovedu u saosnost sa osom cijevi na vrlo maloj dužini. Kratka cijev u isto vrijeme znači da je kompaktnija i time manje oscilira. Ako se uzme u obzir poređenje debljina cijevi u osnovi (ležište metka) i usta cijevi onda je lako primijetiti koliko je cijev tanja pri vrhu. Konusne cijevi imaju karakterističnu amplitudu oscilacije jer deblja baza smiruje prvi snažni impuls nakon opaljenja. Ukoliko se želi postići precizan pogodak cijev oružja mora da bude valjak sa ojačanim ležištem metka, koji debljinom stjenki i čvrstoćom materijala smiruje oscilaciju na najmanju moguću amplitudu. U poređenju kraće deblje i duge tanke cijevi, faktor preciznosti je na strani one cijevi koja manje oscilira.

Duža cijev

Porast pritiska barutnih gasova omogućuje ubrzanje projektila progresivnom putanjom koja je u skladu sa karakterom izgaranja. Duža cijev omogućuje duže vrijeme djelovanja barutnih gasova i to baš pri vrhu krivulje porasta pritisaka. Obzirom da su meni nepoznati tačni podaci o ovim posljednjim centimetrima boravka ZRNA u cijevi neću se usuditi da iznesem bilo koji podatak osim logične predpostavke da je porast brzine projektila u ovoj zoni značajno veći nego u prvim centimetrima nakon urezivanja. Manja otpornost na savijanje i veliko poskakivanje nakon dinamičke traume, odnosno velika oscilacija, ne idu u korist dužim cijevima.

Preciznost svakako zavisi od uslova spoljne balistike, ali cijev u suštini ipak odrađuje glavni posao. Da se ne mučimo, objasnićemo šta to projektil treba da ima kad napusti usta cijevi. Početna brzina se definiše u momentu prestanka djelovanja barutnih gasova na bazu (dance projektila) i nakon veoma kratke pauze u kojoj se ZRNO ponaša neutralno, brzina  počinje da opada. Teži projektil se lakše stabiliše zbog toga što njegova nezavisna inercija počiva na većoj kinetičkoj energiji i žiroskopskim silama koje zbog rotacije djeluju na stabilnost putanje. Oblik baze uslovljava da li će vrtloženja gasova manje ili više destabilisati projektil nakon izlaska iz cijevi.

Nekoliko „dodatnih” centimetara dužine cijevi će podići početnu brzinu za nekih tridesetak metara u sekundi što može da ispaljenom projektilu donese do sto metara leta više u području nadzvučnih brzina. Veća brzina uslovljava položeniju putanju i definitivno preciznije gađanje.

Teorija nikada značajno ne razmišlja o stanju nagriženosti cijevi, stanju baruta, kvalitetu projektila i vremenskim uslovima na strelištu. Laboratorijski uslovi su korisni kao podatak koji se veže za idealno složene sve elemente koji utiču na preciznost projektila.

Dužina cijevi je tek samo jedan od tih elemenata i ništa drugo, tako da je preciznija ona cijev koja je:
1-    dovoljne dužine koja omogućuje razvoj maksimalno dopuštenog pritiska koji proizvođač municije navodi u deklaraciji, što će rezultovati najvećom mogućom početnom brzinom projektila.
2-    Da su polja i žljebovi cijevi u dobrom stanju kako bi se obezbjedilo dobro vođenje i zaptivenost.
3-    Da je cijev dovoljno kompaktna (čitaj debela) da oscilacije svede na podnošljivu mjeru.
4-    Da su usta cijevi konstrukciono prilagođena da zavrltože barutne gasove kako ne bi dugo pratili bazu projektila i na taj način ga destabilisali.

Na manjim daljinama se razlike u dužini cijevi ne odražavaju značajno na sliku pogodaka, ali svaki od projektila koji je u zoni centra mete na 100 metara, nosi svoj nevidljivi balistički zapis koji se može pročitati tak na daljinama od preko 500 pa i 900 metara. Ako bismo dali jednaku šansu dužoj cijevi, onda bismo imali proporcionalno dužu i proporcionalno deblju cijev. Nije isto od kilograma čelika napraviti topčić od pola metra ili vodovodnu cijev od metra.  Proporcionalno uvećanje cijevi dovodi neminovno i do povećanja mase, a povećanje mase dovodi do manjih oscilacija i  blažeg trzaja oružja. Produženjem cijevi se pokreće cijeli lanac konstrukcionih izmjena i uz sve navedene činjenice, nikakav poseban zaključak o većoj preciznosti i nije potreban. Duža cijev u kontekstu balističkih performansi, prvo mora da se preimenuje u pojam veća cijev, tako da bi se u startu otklonila sumnja i pomisao da je riječ o nekoj slamčici za sok ili tananoj cijevi koja se pod pritiskom snažnih barutnih gasova vijori kao trska!

Koja je cijev preciznija?

Eksperiment sa rezanjem revolverske cijevi na režnjeve od po jedan inč je odavno postao sinonim za dokazivanja da dužina cijevi ne utiče na preciznost projektila, mada ga ja više smatram kao dokaz uticaja pile za metal na revolversku cijev. Podaci sa daljine od 25 metara, na kojoj je gađana meta iz skraćivane revolverske cijevi su nedovoljni za ozbiljnu tvrdnju koja je uslijedila nakon ovoga testa. Tvrdnja da dužina cijevi ne utiče na preciznost je donijela određene predrasude koje se povlače već skoro dvadeset godina i stvarno je krajnje vrijeme da to neko okonča, a ko će drugi ako ne ZRNO.

Za one koji nisu imali živaca da pročitaju sav tekst ponoviću da je preciznija ona cijev koja ima mirniju oscilaciju, dovoljnu dužinu da po deklaraciji proizvođača municije oslobodi maksimalnu snagu barutnog punjenja i postigne najveću bezbjednu početnu brzinu ispaljenom projektilu. Pod propisanim uslovima, šansa da bude preciznija je na strani duže (i veće) cijevi. Ovo je ujedno i odgovor i obrazac po kojem je moguće procijeniti  balističke osobine cijevi vatrenog oružja. Van ovoga koncepta ni jedna priča ne vrijedi mnogo.

Zahvaljujem se čitaocu Srđanu za postavljeno pitanje.

Autor: Mladen Puzigaća

www.zrno.ba

 

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