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Home Noževi Noževi SIMBOL LEGENDARNIH RATNIKA SAMURAJA – KATANA

SIMBOL LEGENDARNIH RATNIKA SAMURAJA – KATANA

Ovo japansko oružje je dio kulture i tradicije Japana. Ona predstavlja simbol legendarnih ratnika koji su ga nekada ponosno nosili. Iako je u zapadnjačkoj kulturi slavna kroz holivudske blokbastere, katana zauzima mjesto koje joj sa pravom pripada. Činjenica je da je katana jedan od najfunkcionalnijih sječiva za borbu svih vremena, međutim ona se ne zaustavlja tu, već zahvaljujući svojoj nevjerovatnoj izradi postaje umjetničko djelo. Ustvari, može se reći da se ona u modernom društvu približava više umjetnosti nego oružju. Ovi mačevi se i danas prave. U Japanu postoji par stotina kovača mačeva koji učestvuju u takmičenjima u izradi katane u organizaciji japanske asocijacije majstora ovog zanata.  Autor: Ado Kulović

Katana je zakrivljeni mač sa jednom oštricom, kojeg su nosili samuraji poslije početka petnaestog stoljeća. Manja sječiva slične izrade, wakizashi ili shoto su obično nošeni zajedno sa katanom. Ovaj komplet zvao se daisho, i predstavljao je čast i ponos jednog samuraja. Dok je sama katana korištena za sukob na ratištu, ovi manji mačevi korišteni su za borbu u manjim prostorima ili seppuku, vrstu ritaulnog samoubistva koji su činili samuraji, ako bi izgubili čast.

Katana je zamišljena tako, da bude pogodna i za sječenje i za ubadanje neprijatelja.

Kada bi se njeno ime bukvalno prevelo, katana bi jednostavno značila „mač“. Međutim, postoji još jedan naziv za ovo oružje: Nihonto, koji originalno vodi porijeklo iz kineskog jezika i znači „japanski mač“.

 

Pojava i razvoj

Izrada mačeva u Japanu ima jaku dugu historiju. Međutim, mačevi do početka desetog stoljeća (Heian perioda) nisu bili nekog osobitog kvaliteta. U ovom periodu dolazi do uvoza tehnika kovanja mačeva iz Kine.

Katana kakvu mi poznajemo, nastala je upravo sredinom Heian perioda. Ona svoj oblik dobija zahvaljujući činjenici da je konjica postala najraširenija borbena jedinica. Raniji mačevi, koji su bili sasvim ravni, nisu bili pogodni za djelovanje dok bi se jahalo. Zato se uvodi ovaj blago zakrivljeni oblik koji je dosta praktičniji u tu svrhu.

Kada nije bilo rata, japanski majstori izrade mačeva pravili su artističke oštrice. U takvim periodima nastajale su katane najljepše izrade, a karakteristične su po graviranju koje se zvalo horimono. Motivi su bili jednostavni i sa puno ukusa, a nastali su iz religijskih razloga. Ova vrsta kovanja katane je karakteristična za Edo period. Međutim, iako su mačevi iz ovog period možda najljepši, kvalitet oštrice je slabiji. Ove katane su se zvali shinto, što znači „novi mač“ i smatralo se da su generalno lošijeg kvaliteta od koto („stari mač“), koji se kovao između 987. i 1597. god. Period „starog mača“ smatra se za najkvalitetniji period izrade katane. Međutim, kroz ratove koji su se desili poslije ovog perioda, vještina izrade koto-a je izgubljena. Trebalo je naći način da se stari kvalitet japanskog mača ponovo vrati.

Suishinshi Mashaide, majstore izrade katane, javno je propagirao da su shinto katane, lošije od onih iz koto perioda, te da se stare tehnike moraju ponovo otkriti. Majstor Mashaide je odlučio da putuje Japanom i da prenosi sve ono što zna majstorima u cijeloj zemlji. Posljedica ovoga bio je shinshinto, „novi, novi mač“. Period 1761 – 1825 god. svojevrsna je renesansa u izradi katane. Nastao je stil koji je ponovo otkrio tehnike kovanja iz koto perioda. Smatra se da je shinshinto bolji od shinto, a lošiji od originalnih koto mačeva.

1876. god. nošenje mačeva i vatrenog oružja je zabranjeno u Japanu. Katana se koristila još samo u policiji. Proizvodnja japanskog mača u ovom periodu stagnira. Međutim, početkom 20-tog stoljeća ukazala se potreba da se vojska naoruža katanama. Ove katane su imale kraće oštrice od onih u shinto i shinshinto periodu Također, težilo se tome da im se ugravira serijski broj. Ovaj mač se zvao gunto i može se reći da je više ličio zapadnjačkim, konjičkim sabljama nego katani.

Nakon ovog perioda, do početka Drugog svjetskog rata drevna tradicija se održala zahvaljujući naporu nekoliko pojedinaca. Ovi majstori su pravili takve mačeve koji su bili u rangu sa onim iz starijih perioda. Japanska vlada izdaje 1934. god. vojnu specifikaciju za shin gunto, „novi, vojni mač“. Ovaj mač rađen ručno i mašinski, biće korišten u Drugom svjetskom ratu.

Krajem Drugog svjetskog rata oružane snage SAD-a u okupiranom Japanu su zabranile proizvodnju katane sa oštricom. Tek će se kasnije dogovoriti da se smiju proizvoditi samo oni mačevi koji imaju umjetničku vrijednost. Svi gunto mačevi su trebali biti uništeni. Međutim desilo se da su američki vojnici otkupljivali katane po jako niskim cijenama i nosili ih sa sobom nazad u SAD. Iako je na taj način iz Japana izvezen i određeni broj starijih, kvalitetnijih mačeva; najveći broj njih u stvari je bio gunto. Govori se o broju milion ili više katana mačeva koji su odne-šeni, tako da je 1958. god. u SAD-u bilo više katana nego u Japanu.

Katana koja se danas proizvodi zove se shinsakuto, bukvalno prevedeno: „novo-napravljeni mač“. Ovi mačevi se još mogu zvati i shinken, kada su pravljeni za borbu. Zbog popularnosti katane, pravi se i veliki broj replika. Ove replike se prave uglavnom od nehrđajućeg čelika.

U Japanu se izrada katane vidi kao umjetnost, a ne kao izrada oružja. Izrada ovog mača se kroz radove nekih entuzijasta njeguje i u nekim drugim zemljama.

 

Nošenje, dijelovi i dekoracije

Jedinica dužine oštrice japanskih mačeva zove se shaku i ekvivalent je približno 30 cm. Oštrica kraća od jednog shaku zove se tanto (nož);  oštrica duža od jednog shaku ali kraća od dva, zove se shoto (kratki mač); dok se oštrica duža od dva shaku zove daito (dugi mač).

Kroz svoje veoma dugo postojanje, katana je nošena na više načina. Onaj najpoznatiji kod kojeg se ona nosi na boku, a oštrica je okrenuta gore naziva se buke-zukuri. Pod punim oklopom samuraj je svoj mač nosio sa oštricom okrenutom dole, jer mu je tako bilo lakše da izvuče svoj mač iz korica. Kada ne bi bio oklopljen, samuraj bi katanu nosio na buke-zukuri način jer bi mu tako bilo omogućeno da jednim brzim potezom izvuče mač i napadne protivnika.

Na diagramu su prikazani dijelovi oštrice i opreme katane. Evo objašnjenja nekih osnovnih pojmova. Mekugi predstavlja mali čavao, vrlo često od bambusa koji drži oštricu u tsuka (ručici); a mala rupica u dijelu sječiva koji ide u ručku zove se Mekugi Ana u nju se stavlja mekugi. Ha je sama oštrica mača, dok je Shinogi rub na oštroj strani katane, a Habaki predstavlja rub oko oštrice, koji se nalazi iznad tsuba-e. Poklopac na dnu ručke naziva se Tsukagashira, a pregrada koja dijeli oštricu od ručke naziva se Tsuba. Kurigata je mali dugmić za koji je pričvršćen Sageo, vrpca kojom se Saya (korice) veže za ratnika, dok se čep na dnu Saya-e naziva Kojiri.

Dekoracije na katanama ne moraju biti vidljive. Jedna od najznačajnijih gravura se vrši na Nakago, dio oštrice koji dolazi ispod tsuka-e. Nakago se ne smije čistiti jer on treba da pokazuje kako oštrica podnosi starenje. Čišćenje ovog dijela katane može joj smanjiti vrijednost za polovinu. Postoji i graviranja na samu oštricu, kao npr. već spominjani horimono koji je tu u čast bogova, zmajeva i sl. Dekoracija se također odnosi i na korice (saya), a i na već spominjanu pregradu između oštrice i ručke (tsuba).

 

Izrada

Kada govorimo o tradicionalnoj, drevnoj izradi, gotovo nikad jedan majstor nije radio čitavu katanu. Grubi dio bi uradio jedan, malo precizniji dio drugi; a za poliranje, graviranje, izradu ručke i tsuba-e bio bi još po barem jedan majstor za svaki zadatak Izrada katane je mogla trajati čak i mjesecima i smatrala se svetim procesom.

Da bi se postigla u isto vrijeme i čvrstoća i žilavost, katana je pravljena sa vanjskim tvrđim i unutrašnjim mekšim čelikom. Na taj način je ovaj mač bio tvrd i jako oštar, a smanjena je i mogućnost lomljenja.

Hadagane, vanjski tvrdi sloj, pravljen je tako što bi se zagrijao komad visoko kvalitetnog čelika, da bi se zatim čekićem oblikovao u šipku. Ovako oblikovan čelik bi se hladio i razdvojio na manje komade da bi se provjerio od nečistoća, zatim bi se ponovo grijao i spajao u cjelinu. Ovaj postupak ponavljao bi se nekoliko puta.

Shingane, unutrašnji sloj,  pravljen je od relativno mekšeg čelika sa manjim procentom karbona, nego što je to bio slučaj kod Hadagane. Procedura kovanja je gotovo ista. Jedina razlika je u tome, što se proces uzastopnog zagrijavanja i hlađenja ponavljao manje puta.

Kada je rađen zadnji ciklus zagrija-vanja shingane; hadagane bi se ponovo zagrijavao te kovao u oblik slova „U“. Nakon toga se ove dvije mase spajaju i čine Sunobe, koji se dalje udara čekićem kako bi se izbacio vazduh i sve ostale nečistoće između dva kompozitna sloja. Nakon što se Sunobe očistio; dolazi faza parcijalnog grijanja i oblikovanja kako bi se postigao prepoznatljiv oblik katane.

U ovom momentu mač je poluzavršen i ostavljen je da se ohladi, nakon čega će se pristupiti finalnom procesu očvršćavanja oštrice, koji se zove yaki-ire. Ovaj proces tradicionalno se radio noću. Kovač bi grijao sunabe držeći ga u usijanom uglju, dok ne bi po boji procijenio da je dovoljno zagrijan. Nakon toga, mač bi se stavio u vodu, da se ohladi. Temperatura ugrijanog mača i vode u kojoj se on hladi su strogo čuvane tajne majstora. Korištenje gline u različitim pe-riodima kovanja mača, omogućuje čeliku da se brže ohladi u momentu kada se uroni u vodu a samim tim i da bude čvršći, odnosno mač oštriji. Yaki-ire je najbitniji proces kod pravljenja mača i upravo tu je majstorovo umijeće dolazilo do izražaja.

 

Legenda katane

Katana je legenda, to je neosporna činjenica. Ona je dio kulture i folklora Japana ne samo u vojnom smislu nego i u svakom drugom. Ovaj mač je simbol sjajne tradicije ovog velikog naroda. Jedna legenda kaže da kada je Bog sebi pravio katanu i prilikom Yaki-ire procesa uronio mač u okean da ga ohladi, četiri kapi istopljenog čelika pale su u moru i stvrdle se. Te kapi bile su: Hokaido, Honshu, Shikoku i Kyushu; četiri otoka koja čine Japan.

 

Autor: Ado Kulović

www.zrno.ba

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